A Declaration of Dependence

A recently discovered, candid, but politically incorrect draft with last minute changes.

Draft of the Declaration of IndependenceIN CONGRESS, JULY 2^4, 1776

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America

When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for rich^one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and more than equal station to which the Laws of Capitalism^Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these beliefs^truths to be self-evident, that all men are not created equal, that they are endowed by their Wealth, Possessions, Status, and skin Color with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Money^Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among People^Men, deriving their just powers from the fear^consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the Powerful^People to alter, subvert or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to protect their Wealth and effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of unfair tax policy, abuses, and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Equality,^Tyranny, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future Business ventures.^Security. — Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Regulation^Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Loopholes^Laws requested by our lobbyists, the most wholesome and necessary for our^the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance to our special interest, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of small^large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of over Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved our campaign financed, bought and paid for Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of our^the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be selected, whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to Us for^the people at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion and competition from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of low paid migrant workers of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing our influence on Judiciary Powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone – not ours, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers, Tax Collectors and Regulators to harass our people and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of our industries and superior to our^civil Power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops and auditors among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our monopolies and Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent or manipulation:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefit of Trial by Jury with our army of lawyers, parsing of facts or gag orders:

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for real or pretended offences:

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies

For taking away our Charters which was bad for business, abolishing our most valuable Laws and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection from investigations or waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people instead of letting us do it.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & Perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation – we reserve that exclusive right.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us harming our land prices, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages whose lands we want for ourselves and whose known rule of warfare, like ours, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms we can pretend: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free or greatly discounted people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of who we are and the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Customersl^Friends.

We, therefore, the self-appointed Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good and landed pink skinned People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these united Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free of Regulation and Independent States, that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power for free markets, to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right or power do. — And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of claiming Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, some of our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

New Hampshire:
Josiah Bartlett, William Whipple, Matthew Thornton

Massachusetts:
John Hancock, Samuel Adams, John Adams, Robert Treat Paine, Elbridge Gerry

Rhode Island:
Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery

Connecticut:
Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, William Williams, Oliver Wolcott

New York:
William Floyd, Philip Livingston, Francis Lewis, Lewis Morris

New Jersey:
Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart, Abraham Clark

Pennsylvania:
Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John Morton, George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, George Ross

Delaware:
Caesar Rodney, George Read, Thomas McKean

Maryland:
Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll of Carrollton

Virginia:
George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Harrison, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton

North Carolina:
William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn

South Carolina:
Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Thomas Lynch, Jr., Arthur Middleton

Georgia:
Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton

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